On the windward side of southwestern Taiwan, about a quarter to a half of all rainfall during mid-July through August from 1994 to 2000 came from convective systems embedded in the southwesterly monsoon flow. k this study, the causes of two heavy rainfall events (daily rainfall exceeding 100 mm day over at least three rainfall stations) observed over the slopes and/or lowlands of southwestern Taiwan were examined. Data from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts /Tropical Ocean- Global Atmosphere (EC/TOGA) analyses, the rainfall stations of the Automatic Rainfall and Meteorological Telemetry System (ARMTS) and the conventional surface stations over Taiwan, and the simulation results from a regional-scale numerical model were used to accomplish the objectives. In one event (393 mm day on 9 August 1999), heavy rainfall was observed over the windward slopes of southern Taiwan in a potentially unstable environment with very humid air around 850 hPa. The extreme accumulation was simulated and attributed to orographic lifting effects. No preexisting convection drifted in from the Taiwan Strait into western Taiwan.